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FreeBsd Crypto

Written by Arnaud no comments

There are several way to make some crypto :

-  To create encrypted image jails, use the -c switch and either pass bde or eli and follow the instructions on screen:
ezjail-admin create -c eli -i 16G

Also note, that crypto jails would block the boot process (unless the passphrase is provided via a file or some fetch magic via stdin). So they are being marked as attachblocking and not started during boot time. You need to start them using ezjail-admin startcrypto.

Further reading :

- you can use gbde or geli to encrypt partition :

- You can also mount an image file (vnode) that you have prepared to be an encrypted filesystem.

Creation of the image :

dd if=/dev/zero of=/path/to/your/image.file bs=1M count=xxx
mdconfig -at vnode -f /path/to/your/image.file
geli init /dev/md0
geli attach /dev/md0
newfs /dev/md0.eli

Attach/mount the encrypted image :

mdconfig -at vnode -f /path/to/your/image.file
geli attach /dev/md0
mount -o noatime /dev/md0.eli /dir/to/mount/under

Further reading :

Classified in : UNIX Tags : none


Written by Arnaud no comments

pkg install openbgpd
touch /usr/local/etc/bgpd.conf
chmod 0600 /usr/local/etc/bgpd.conf

echo 'bgpd_flags=""' >> /etc/rc.conf

edit your config :
vi /usr/local/etc/bgpd.conf

service bgpd start

Some useful commands :

List the sessions and states :
bgpctl show summary

Detailed informations on your neighbors:
bgpctl show neighbor

Your configured/announced net :
bgpctl show network

List of routes for a prefix:
bgpctl show rib <network> all

Classified in : BGP, UNIX Tags : none

FreeBSD10 Ezjail and OpenVPN

Written by Arnaud no comments

WARNING : This is probably a bad idea to use OpenVPN in a Jail (you will lose *a lot* of time to configure it) but it work's.

I really recommand to read the sources a the bottom of this articles, they were great help.

First things, prepare the host :

ifconfig tun create
echo 'cloned_interfaces="tun0"' >> /etc/rc.conf

Create you Jail (eg named openvpn) with ezjail (cf my previous posts) and change some settings in /usr/local/etc/ezjail/openvpn  (you MUST use ifconfig, *_ip_multi0 is NOT supported) :

#export jail_services_devfs_ruleset="devfsrules_jail"
export jail_services_devfs_ruleset="5"
export jail_services_exec_prestart0="/sbin/ifconfig tun0 inet"
export jail_services_exec_prestart1="/sbin/route add -net"


This is what you should put in /etc/devfs.rules in order to allow openVPN to bind on tun interface :

# Rules for jail <VPN>
add include $devfsrules_hide_all
add include $devfsrules_unhide_basic
add include $devfsrules_unhide_login
add path tun0 unhide

If you have a Warning like this in /var/log/messages :

WARNING: devfs_init_rulesets: could not read rules from /etc/devfs.rules

You sould try to copy the default file, and then clean it and copy only your few lines again (yes, it worked for me...)

cp /etc/defaults/devfs.rules /etc/devfs.rules
echo '' > /etc/devfs.rules


Now you can start the Jail and install OpenVPN in the jail

ezjail-admin start openvpn
ezjail-admin console openvpn
pkg install openvpn

Here is the config I made for the OpenVPN server in the jail /usr/local/etc/openvpn/openvpn.conf (the 2 last lines are really important):

port 1194
proto udp
dev tun
ca /etc/ssl/CA/cacert.pem
cert /etc/ssl/CA/certs/srv.crt
key /etc/ssl/CA/certs/srv.key
crl-verify /etc/ssl/CA/crls/crl.pem
dh /etc/ssl/CA/certs/dh2048.pem
ifconfig-pool-persist ipp.txt
keepalive 10 120
cipher BF-CBC
user nobody
group nobody
status openvpn-status.log
verb 3
mute 20
push "redirect-gateway def1"
push "dhcp-option DNS"

# needed in jail

I have followed this french page in order to setup SSL and OpenVPN :

Enable OpenVPN at boot in the jail (no, you dont need to enable, neither set, the gateway in the jail) :

echo 'openvpn_enabled="YES"' >> /etc/rc.conf

From the host, you can now restart the jail, check that the tun interface of YOUR host (NOT THE JAIL) has the IP, verify OpenVPN is listening :
ezjail-admin restart openvpn
ifconfig tun0
sockstat -4


BTW, did you remember to redirrct UDP port 1194 to the jail, like I explained in my previons ticket? If yes, did you thought to enable NAT for VPN IP? change your /etc/rc.conf and reload conf (with pfctl -vf /etc/pf.conf) :
rdr on em0 proto udp to port 1194 -> port 1194
nat on em0 from lo1:network -> (em0)
nat on em0 from -> (em0)


If you have some troubles getting an IP on the tun interface, you may (but should not need) try to :

sysrc devfs_load_rulesets=YES ; service devfs restart ; ezjail-admin restart
echo 'devfs_load_rulesets="YES"' >> /etc/rc.conf


Sources :

Classified in : UNIX Tags : none

FreeBSD Jails

Written by Arnaud no comments

We will use ezjail to make it easier :

pkg install ezjail
ezjail-admin install

service ezjail start

Create your first jail and connect to it (we will NAT the jail in this example):

ezjail-admin create myjailname 'lo1|'
ezjail-admin start myjailname
ezjail-admin list
ezjail-admin console myjailname

Allow raw sockets (needed for ping, but not recommanded) by editing /usr/local/etc/ezjail/myjailname:

export jail_myjailname_parameters="allow.raw_sockets=1"

Enable features on skeleton of jails :

echo sshd_enable="YES" >> /usr/jails/newjail/etc/rc.conf

Enable NAT and port redirection in /etc/pf.conf:

ext_if = "em0"
int_if = "lo1"
rdr on $ext_if proto udp to port 1194 -> port 1194
nat on $ext_if from $int_if:network -> ($ext_if)

Start PF and Check/Load PF config :

service pf onestart
pfctl -vf /etc/pf.conf
pfctl -e

Enable at startup in /etc/rc.conf :



more about PF :

more about ezjail :

Classified in : UNIX Tags : none

FreeBSD Basics

Written by Arnaud no comments

If you choose to Install FreeBSD 10 on Proxmox, you MUST set CPU to QEMU64 or it won't boot (yes, it will be ok for install, but not for boot!)

If you choosed to install ssh and ntp, check they are enabled in  /etc/rc.conf :


remember to modify theses lines in /etc/ntp.conf to avoid beeing a bot in a DDoS amplification attack :

#restrict default kod nomodify notrap nopeer noquery
#restrict -6 default kod nomodify notrap nopeer noquery
# Alternatively, the following rules would block all unauthorized access.
restrict default ignore
restrict -6 default ignore

and "service ntpd restart"

  • To allow root login in ssh and disable password authentication, edit /etc/ssh/sshd_config :

PermitRootLogin  yes
PasswordAuthentication no

and "service sshd restart"

  • Update the system:
freebsd-update fetch
freebsd-update install
  • Search and Install new software with PKGNG (binary):

pkg search tcpdump
pkg install tcpdump


  • Check installed packages and get details on a specific one  :

pkg info
pkg info tcpdump

  • Check for update and upgrade packages :

pkg update
pkg version
pkg upgrade

(more about packages install and ports : )

  • View partitions list and type :

gpart show

  • See free memory (RAM) in MB :

pkg install freecolor
freecolor -o -m



To use the BSD ports, first fetch and extract the list :

portsnap fetch
portsnap extract
portsnap fetch update

Find a port (if you know the name) :

#whereis nmap
nmap: /usr/ports/security/nmap

If you dont know the exact name, you can search :

# cd /usr/ports
# make search name=lsof

Compile & install  (if the file pkg-message exists, you should read it!) :

cd /usr/ports/security/nmap
make install clean

or simply install a port with portmaster :

pkg install portmaster
portmaster -d sysutils/password-store

update all your ports :

portmaster -a
Classified in : UNIX Tags : none

Super SCP

Written by Arnaud no comments
I use this script to scp files as root to the distant server, so that I don't need to type "root@"
eg : arnaud@local:~$./scp file srv:/root
# we check the last argument
if [ `echo ${!#} | grep ":"` ] ; then
        # we pop $@
        # sed s,a,b is same as sed s/a/b
        # but no need to escape / :-)
        list=$(echo $@ | sed s,\ ${!#},,)
        scp -r $list root@${!#}
        # we unshift $@
        list=$(echo $@ | sed s,$1\ ,,)
        scp -r root@$1 $list
Classified in : UNIX Tags : none

Linux and routing tables

Written by Arnaud no comments

To add another default gateway to a dedicated interface, in this example I want 2 interfaces and one default GW for each IP (my 2nd interface has IP

ip route add default via table 100
ip rule add from table 100

ip rule list
ip route list table local
ip route list table 100

source & more :

Classified in : UNIX Tags : none
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